First Nations fiscal management

The First Nations Fiscal Management Act (FNFMA) is optional legislation that provides First Nations with support and tools to strengthen their communities and build their economies.

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Amendments to the FNFMA

Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada, in collaboration with the First Nations Financial Management Board, the First Nations Tax Commission, the First Nations Finance Authority and the First Nations Infrastructure Institute Development Board, proposed amendments to the FNFMA.

We sought input from member First Nations of the FNFMA on proposed legislative changes that will improve and enhance the efficient operation of the act, its institutions and the overall regime.

Consult amendments to the First Nations Fiscal Management Act for more information.

About the act

While all First Nations have the authority to pass by-laws related to the taxation of land under the Indian Act, the FNFMA provides First Nation governments with authority over:

Participating First Nation governments are also supported by the First Nations institutions established under the act. The FNFMA contributes to the well-being, economic and community development and greater self-determination of First Nations.

The original act, the First Nations Fiscal and Statistical Management Act, came into force on April 1, 2006 and was officially renamed the First Nations Fiscal Management Act on April 1, 2013.

The act enables First Nations to participate more fully in the Canadian economy while meeting local needs by:

How to participate in the FNFMA

Participation in the FNFMA is optional. In order to participate, a First Nation must submit a Band Council Resolution to the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations requesting that they be added to the schedule of the FNFMA.

FNFMA institutions

Once a First Nation has been added to the schedule of the FNFMA, it can begin working with any or all of the First Nations institutions established under the act:

The institutions work together to improve the ability of First Nations governments to address the social and economic well-being of their communities while providing the practical tools available to other governments for modern fiscal management.

The First Nation Finance Authority issued its inaugural bond of $90 million in June 2014. The bond has since grown as of March 2022 to more than a total of $1.8 billion (1.62 million from FNFA’s first 9 debentures plus $209 million from FNFA’s Interim Loan Program). The 85 participating First Nations are using the funds raised by the First Nation Finance Authority to support infrastructure and economic development projects for their communities.

First Nations participating in the FNFMA

Since 2006, 348 First Nations are scheduled to, or are participating in, the FNFMA, and more are asking to be added on a regular basis.

Participation in the act is optional. First Nations communities choose whether they will participate in the taxing and borrowing regimes created under the act and subsequent regulations.

The First Nation participation in the FNFMA by province and territory as of June, 2023 is the following:

Learn more about the FNFMA

The First Nations Gazette, provides public notice of by-laws, laws, land codes, and other legislation enacted by First Nations. The First Nations Gazette is published by the First Nations Tax Commission in conjunction with the Indigenous Law Centre of the University of Saskatchewan.

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